Abdominal obesity

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Medieval cuisine
The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient. In colder climates, however, it was usually unaffordable for the majority population, and was associated with the higher classes. Central obesity is known to predispose individuals for insulin resistance. Is a body wrap a compression or sauna-like water loss treatment? According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down.

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There are sex-dependent differences in regional fat distribution. In women, estrogen is believed to cause fat to be stored in the buttocks , thighs , and hips. Males are more susceptible to upper-body fat accumulation, most likely in the belly, due to sex hormone differences.

Even with the differences, at any given level of central obesity measured as waist circumference or waist to hip ratio, coronary artery disease rates are identical in men and women. A permanent routine of exercise, eating healthily, and, during periods of being overweight, consuming the same number or fewer calories than used will prevent and help fight obesity.

Adjunctive therapies which may be prescribed by a physician are orlistat or sibutramine , although the latter has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in the United States , [83] the UK , [84] the EU , [85] Australia , [86] Canada , [87] Hong Kong , [88] Thailand , [89] Egypt and Mexico. A study published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism , [90] suggests that combining cardiovascular aerobic exercise with resistance training is more effective than cardiovascular training alone in getting rid of abdominal fat.

An additional benefit to exercising is that it reduces stress and insulin levels, which reduce the presence of cortisol , a hormone that leads to more belly fat deposits. Self-motivation by understanding the risks associated with abdominal obesity is widely regarded as being far more important than worries about cosmetics.

In addition, understanding the health issues linked with abdominal obesity can help in the self-motivation process of losing the abdominal fat.

As mentioned above, abdominal fat is linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Specifically it's the deepest layer of belly fat the fat you cannot see or grab that poses health risks, as these "visceral" fat cells produce hormones that can affect health e. The risk increases considering the fact that they are located in the proximity or in between organs in the abdominal cavity. For example, fat next to the liver drains into it, causing a fatty liver , which is a risk factor for insulin resistance, setting the stage for Type 2 diabetes.

In the presence of diabetes mellitus type 2 , the physician might instead prescribe metformin and thiazolidinediones rosiglitazone or pioglitazone as antidiabetic drugs rather than sulfonylurea derivatives.

Thiazolidinediones may cause slight weight gain but decrease "pathologic" abdominal fat visceral fat , and therefore may be prescribed for diabetics with central obesity. Low-fat diets may not be an effective long-term intervention for obesity: The conclusion was that mean weight decreased significantly in the intervention group from baseline to year 1 by 2. This difference from baseline between control and intervention groups diminished over time, but a significant difference in weight was maintained through year 9, the end of the study.

There is a common misconception that spot exercise that is, exercising a specific muscle or location of the body most effectively burns fat at the desired location, but this is not the case. Spot exercise is beneficial for building specific muscles, but it has little effect, if any, on fat in that area of the body, or on the body's distribution of body fat. The same logic applies to sit-ups and belly fat.

Sit-ups , crunches and other abdominal exercises are useful in building the abdominal muscles , but they have little effect, if any, on the adipose tissue located there. Several colloquial terms used to refer to central obesity, and to people who have it, refer to beer drinking. However, there is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity, despite its being known colloquially as "beer belly", "beer gut", or "beer pot".

One of the few studies conducted on the subject did not find that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity than nondrinkers or drinkers of wine or spirits. These symptoms can suggest the appearance of central obesity. Deposits of excess fat at the sides of one's waistline are commonly referred to as "love handles".

Researchers in Copenhagen examined the relationship between waist circumferences and costs among 31, subjects aged 50—64 years of age with different waist circumferences. Their study showed that an increase in just an additional centimetre above normal waistline caused a 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Central obesity Synonyms beer belly, beer gut, pot belly, spare tyre, bread box A centrally obese male. The body mass index is Specialty Endocrinology Abdominal obesity , also known as central obesity , occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

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International Journal of Hypertension. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Journal of Association of Physicians of India. Journal of Medical Biochemistry. Increasing trends in waist circumference and abdominal obesity among US adults.

Am J Clin Nutr. A case of comparing apples and pears? Journal of Sex Research. Why are women so superior? The Ancel Keys Lecture". Archived from the original on February 9, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 25 January Abbott Laboratories in Germany.

Archived from the original on 14 October Food and Drug Administration of Thailand. Archived from the original PDF on May 11, Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift". What you need to know". Archived from the original on 23 March Sit-ups will make your abdominal muscles stronger, sure.

If drinking continues, healthy liver tissue is gradually replaced by non-functioning scar tissue, a process known as cirrhosis. Abdominal swelling and tenderness, loss of appetite and nausea may characterize alcoholic liver disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

The disorder generally follows the same course as alcoholic liver disease, however patients may be non-drinkers.

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse advises that many people with NASH do not have symptoms of fatigue and upset stomach until liver damage is advanced. Losing weight, eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help you manage NASH.

Regular medical care is also needed to control the effects of this disease. The entire family of cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins can damage your liver. Regular blood tests can detect changes and avoid the development of an associated muscle wasting condition known as rhabdomyolysis.

Symptoms may include stiffness, swelling and tenderness in the large muscles of the legs and back, dark urine, rapid heart rate, fever, nausea and vomiting. Liver impairment or failure can also result from long-term use or high doses of other medications, including over the counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen. Toxic effects of these medications can cause jaundice, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Video of the Day.

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