Example sentences containing 'list'
This does not include curling sheet resurfacing or pebbling. Buying bitcoin is simple to do and is the first step towards becoming an owner and user. Although you do not include these areas in your GFA, you do include their energy use. Persoz, made a more detailed investigation of the process of solubilizing starch with a malt extract to form a sugar that they called "maltose. You MUST have a wallet to get started using cryptocurrencies.
However, there are two different property types: You select the type with which you most closely identify and you can change it at any time on the Details tab, under Basic Information. There are several metrics to show the Property Types in a single Property: Office that has the second largest GFA for that property. Office that has the third largest GFA for that property.
The footprint of the race track itself should also be included in the gross floor area, along with the footprint of any staging areas. For example, the person could view your energy consumption information but could not make corrections or add new energy bills. Refrigerated Warehouse refers to refrigerated buildings that are used to store perishable goods or merchandise under refrigeration at temperatures below 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Repair Services refers to buildings in which some type of repair service is provided.
Examples include vehicle service or repair shops, shoe repair, jewelry repair, locksmiths, etc. Eng or a Registered Architect. Residential Care Facilities refers to buildings that provide rehabilitative and restorative care to patients on a long-term or permanent basis.
Residential Care Facilities treat mental health issues, substance abuse, and rehabilitation for injury, illness, and disabilities. This property type is intended for facilities that offer long-term residential care to residents of all ages who may be in need of assistance with activities of daily living.
If a facility is designed to provide nursing and assistance to seniors only, then the Senior Care Community property type should be used. Open air stairwells, breezeways, and other similar areas that are not fully-enclosed should not be included in the gross floor area. The property is not inhabited by any dedicated population. Privately owned, off-campus housing -- not affiliated with a college or university -- that is primarily occupied by undergraduate or graduate students.
Off-base housing primarily occupied by persons serving in or employed by the military. Housing that is restricted to the elderly that also provides limited programs of assistance with domestic activities meals, housekeeping, activities, transportation, etc. Typically, a unit in an Independent Living Community resembles a standard market unit, though the community may offer amenities or communal dining facilities not typical in multifamily apartment buildings.
Residents living in the property are covered by the American Disabilities Act. Restaurant refers to buildings used for preparation and sale of ready-to-eat food and beverages, but which do not fit in the fast food property type. Examples include fast casual, casual, and fine dining restaurants.
Retail Store refers to individual stores used to conduct the retail sale of non-food consumer goods such as clothing, books, toys, sporting goods, office supplies, hardware, and electronics. Buildings containing multiple stores should be classified as enclosed mall, lifestyle center, or strip mall.
Eligible store configurations include: It consists of the same sections as the application, including an overview of the overall property, the property use details, and energy consumption. A Verifying Professional can sign and stamp it to verify the validity of the data, if needed.
This report may be needed to for applying for a grant or responding to a competition. It is only available for buildings which can get a score. This report would be useful to hang in a building lobby for public disclosure purposes.
Some localities may require it as part of local legislation. School District represents the administrative school district in which your property is located. Seating Capacity is the maximum total seating capacity of the main worship area s in a Worship Facility. If there are multiple seating configurations, please identify the maximum number that the facility can hold.
This number should reflect permanent seating capacity as the facility is typically used. Note that if there is no seating at this type of worship facility, this number should reflect the number of worshipers than can be accommodated in the main worship area s. Self-Storage Facility refers to buildings that are used for private storage. Typically, a single Self Storage Facility will contain a variety of individual units that are rented out for the purpose of storing personal belongings.
Senior Care Community refers to buildings that house and provide care and assistance for elderly residents. You can use one property use to characterize all activities at the community, including any independent living that may be present. In this situation, the floor area of hallways and units for assisted living and any community areas specifically used to assist residents e.
In order to do this, you need to have "Share Forward" permissions. Single Family Home refers to a standalone building with its own lot that provides living space for one household or family. Single Store is entered as either Yes or No. Site Energy is the annual amount of all the energy your property consumes onsite, as reported on your utility bills. Use Site Energy to understand how the energy use for an individual property has changed over time.
It can helpful to use this weather normalized value to understand changes in energy when accounting for changes in weather.
For a given month period, this metric reflects the Site Energy the property would be expected to have if its operations were the same as in the current time period. For example, if you are looking at the period ending December , this metric would tell you the amount of Site Energy you would have used in if your operating conditions weather, hours, occupants had been the same as they are for your current time period.
Much like looking at financial investments in the dollars for a specific year, this adjusted value will help you understand the change in energy when accounting for changes in operation. In this case, EPA recommends using Source Energy Use because it also includes losses that take place during generation, transmission, and distribution of the energy used at the building. The size of Electronic Score Boards is a measure of the total area occupied by electronic signage used for scoring and related announcements, measured in square feet.
This includes any electronic signage inside a venue concourse, as well as the jumbotron and other areas used to promote the event and its sponsors, and to make other announcements. This may include community group meetings, seminars, workshops, or performances. Please note that there is another property use available, Convention Center, for large exhibition and conference facilities. Source Energy Use is the total amount of raw fuel that is required to operate your property.
In addition to what the property consumes on-site, source energy includes losses that take place during generation, transmission, and distribution of the energy, thereby enabling a complete assessment of energy consumption resulting from building operations.
For this reason, Source EUI is the best way to quantify the energy performance of commercial buildings. Use it to understand the complete energy impact of your property, and to compare the energy performance of properties across your portfolio. Stadium Closed refers to structures with a permanent or retractable roof which are used primarily for professional or collegiate sports and entertainment events. Examples of events held in closed stadiums include baseball and football games, and concerts.
Closed Stadiums usually have capacities of 25, seats or more and are often characterized by multiple concourses and concession areas. The footprint of the playing field should also be included in the gross floor area. Examples of events held in open stadiums include baseball, football, and soccer games, and concerts. Open Stadiums usually have capacities of 5, seats or more and are often characterized by multiple concourses and concession areas.
Strip mall refers to buildings comprising more than one retail store, restaurant, or other business, in an open-air configuration where each establishment has an exterior entrance to the public and there are no internal walkways. Student Seating Capacity is the maximum number of students for which a school was designed. This should include the seating capacity of the entire school.
If portable classrooms have been added to your school, include the capacity of these classrooms, as they expand the overall capacity of your school. Buildings where the primary business is the onsite preparation and sale of ready-to-eat food should use one of the Restaurant property types.
Supplemental Heating is entered as either Yes or No. Surgery Center Floor Area is the total size of the surgery center within the medical office building. Swimming Pool refers to any heated swimming pools located either inside or outside. To enter a swimming pool, a specific pool size must be selected. In order to enter buildings associated with a Swimming Pool, the main property use must be entered e.
Target Values are the performance metrics associated with an established target goal for your property. Portfolio Manager has both a regular target and a target for the property design: This will enable you to compare your actual energy use with your target and track your progress.
This target can be expressed in one of three ways: This will enable you to compare your design energy use with your design target, and determine whether your planned design meets your design target goals. The design target is expressed in one of two ways: Tertiary Care is entered as either Yes or No.
Examples of tertiary care include: Test properties can be used to try out new features in Portfolio Manager without touching your real data, or to train others on how to use Portfolio Manager. Third Party Certifications e. This field includes a list of any third part certifications that have been selected. Metrics in Portfolio Manager are calculated based on your energy data and Property Use Details hours of operation, number of computers, etc.
For example, say you have computers for the first half of the year, but increased it to computers for the second half of the year. This includes train stations, bus stations, airports, and seaports. Type of Laundry Facility indicates the type of laundry that is processed within an onsite laundry facility.
You may select one of the following for types: If there are multiple systems operating at different levels of redundancy, choose the option that applies to the majority of the IT load.
The government agency or department that owns or leases the federal property. This is relevant for US and Canada. This designation is used to identify groups of buildings typically in the same geographic location.
The regional or sub-departmental information associated with property that is owned or leased by the government. This is relevant for the U.
Vacancy refers to a portion of the building that is not in use. This is not a few empty cubicles but rather a suite or entire floor that is not leased or occupied. You can use Portfolio Views to see the metrics most important to you at a glance.
Each View has 4 metrics: If you expand the carrot next to the parent property you will see the children properties. Child properties will be sorted with their parent. A Veterinary Office refers to buildings used for the medical care and treatment of animals. Vocational School refers to buildings primarily designed to teach skilled trades to students, including trade and technical schools. Waste Material Type refers to one of 29 different types of materials bottles, trash, batteries, food scraps, etc that can be tracked individually.
Wastewater Treatment Plant refers to facilities designed to treat municipal wastewater. The level of treatment at a plant will vary based on the BOD limits and the specific processes involved. This property use is intended for primary, secondary, and advanced treatment facilities with or without nutrient removal. Treatment processes may include biological, chemical, and physical treatment.
The water cost is the annual cost associated with a given month period. Water cost is available for each water type and also as an aggregated value across all water types. EPA's Water Score for Multifamily Housing, to be released in October , is a measure of how efficiently your property is using water, compared to similar properties, when normalized for climate and operational characteristics.
Within Portfolio Manager you can track four water sources: Weather-normalized metrics, which are automatically calculated in Portfolio Manager, are adjusted for the actual weather in your area. For example, if your area has a hotter than usual summer, your metrics will be adjusted because you will have to use more energy in this situation. The weather station is the monitoring station that EPA assigns within Portfolio Manager to determine reference weather conditions at your property. Web services describes the application programming interface API used to exchange data with Portfolio Manager.
Organizations that exchange data use web services to regularly sync your data with Portfolio Manager and export your metrics out of Portfolio Manager.
Weekday Operation is a count of the number of weekdays Monday through Friday that a Worship Facility is open. Because most Worship Facilities include weekend activities, this count reflects weekdays only, so the maximum number is 5 days.
The count should include all week days when the Worship Facility is open for religious services, choir practice, administrative use, committee meetings, classes, or other activities. Weekend Operation is entered as either Yes or No. Weekend activity could include any time when the property is used for classes, performances, or other school or community activities.
The Yes selection is appropriate for any property that is open on one or both days of the weekend during one or more season of the year. The Weekly Operating Hours is different depending on your property type: For example, if the majority of workers are in your building from 8: Merchandise may include food, clothing, office supplies, furniture, electronics, books, sporting goods, toys, and hardware.
Worship Facility refers to buildings that are used as places of worship. This includes churches, temples, mosques, synagogues, meetinghouses, or any other buildings that primarily function as a place of religious worship. This is the year in which your property was constructed. If your property has undergone a complete renovation that included gutting and rebuilding the interior, then you can indicate the date of this renovation as the year built.
If you don't know the exact year the property was built, enter an estimate. Zoo refers to buildings used primarily to provide habitat to live animals and which may include public or private viewing and educational programs. These IDs are associated with local legislation, national campaigns, or other large benchmarking activities.
These are open fields with no formatting, so please be careful when entering. CoStar is a resource for verified commercial real estate information, including space for lease, property for sale, property and market analytics, and quarterly market reports. When there are multiple buildings on a site, this is the unique site identifier plus a letter code for each building. AMP IDs are 11 characters long, comprised of 2 letters denoting the state, 3 numbers denoting the organization, and 6 numbers denoting the property.
Municipal Code of Orlando, Chapter It corresponds with the CBL number listed on property tax bills. Louis to identify all municipal, institutional, commercial, and multifamily buildings that are required to report annual energy and water usage, as prescribed by St. This identifier provides the link between CTS and building data entered into Portfolio Manager and must be unique across the top-tier U.
All of the 29 Waste Material Types can be Disposed. The indoor ice rink surface area is the total area covered by ice of all the ice rinks used for indoor hockey, ringette, public or figure skating and can be estimated by multiplying the length of the ice surface with the width of the ice surface and adding together the calculated area for each ice rink in the facility. This surface area does not include curling sheets.
Number of indoor ice rinks used for indoor hockey, ringette, public or figure skating. This does not include curling sheets. Number of months per year when the main indoor ice rink s used for indoor hockey, ringette, public or figure skating is present. Total number of floods in a week using ice resurfacing machines after typical ice rink use for all indoor hockey, ringette, public or figure skating ice rinks in the facility.
This does not include curling sheet resurfacing or pebbling. For multiple rinks, sum the total number of weekly resurfacing for all rinks. Number of ice sheets specifically for the purpose of the game of curling. Number of spectator seats used specifically for watching hockey, ringette, public or figure skating, including spectator benches and seating but excluding viewing areas and standing room.
Skip to Page Content: Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including classrooms, administrative space, conference rooms, kitchens used by staff, lobbies, cafeterias, auditoriums, stairways, atriums, elevator shafts, and storage areas.
Click here for additional information. Individual monthly meter entry is more than 65 days long - If any of your individual monthly meter entries is over 65 days, then you will not be able to get Weather Normalized Metrics. Meter has overlaps - An overlap is where the same date is covered by multiple bills. Meter has gaps - A gap is where a date s is NOT covered by your bills.
Meter has less than 12 full calendar months of data - 12 full months of calendar data is required for all metrics. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s including offices, operating and recovery rooms, waiting rooms, employee break rooms and kitchens, elevator shafts, stairways, mechanical rooms, and storage areas.
Areas not in enclosed buildings, such as outdoor habitats, open-air theaters, walkways, and landscaped areas should not be included in the Gross Floor Area. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including sales floors, offices, conference rooms, vehicle service centers, parts storage areas, waiting rooms, staff break rooms, hallways, and stairwells. Gross Floor Area should not include any exterior spaces such as vehicle parking areas.
Water Treatment and Distribution Plants - This daily flow rate includes all sources of water through the plant, including ground water, surface water, and purchased water. This value is provided via a Plant Flow Rate Meter , through which you can update flow rates regularly quarterly, monthly, daily, etc. Wastewater Treatment Plant - This value is the average daily flow of wastewater into the plant.
It is provided via a Plant Flow Rate Meter , through which you can update flow rates regularly quarterly, monthly, daily, etc. Avoided Emissions - Avoided emissions are the emissions benefits associated with green power use.
Avoided emissions may be either onsite or offsite. Offsite Avoided Emissions occur when you purchase green power from your utility or an independent supplier and you own the claims to the RECs.
Please note that you do not subtract the Onsite Avoided Emissions to get this net value, because they have already been counted as zero emissions in your starting inventory. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including banking areas, vaults, lobbies, atriums, kitchens used by staff, conference rooms, storage areas, stairways, and elevator shafts.
Properties whose primary business revenues are generated from the sale of food should be entered using one of the Restaurant property uses, even if there is a bar.
This FAQ provides some examples about what constitutes a campus. If your Casino is located in the same building as a hotel, we recommend that you enter a separate hotel property use. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including classrooms, laboratories, offices, cafeterias, maintenance facilities, arts facilities, athletic facilities, residential areas, storage rooms, restrooms, elevator shafts, and stairways.
Composed refers to organic waste materials most commonly food scraps and yard debris that are decomposed and ultimately, transformed into soil-like fertilizer. Both onsite composting and offsite composting where someone picks up your compost and takes it to a commercial composting site are counted. Yes — Indicates that there is a Computer Lab, which refers to a room or set of rooms specifically designed and equipped with at least 10 computers and associated peripherals, such as printers, for the use of the occupants.
No — Indicates that the property does not contain a Computer Lab. Owner Contact is the person who represents the property owner. Architect of Record is the organization who designed the property.
Project Architect is the person who was the main point of contact from the architect firm. Application Primary Contact is the person we will correspond with if there are any issues with the application.
Property Manager is an outside organization that you have hired to manage your facility operations. Primary Contact is the main point of contact for the property. Licensed Professional is the person who validates the property information that appears on the report. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including sales floors, offices, staff break rooms, storage areas, and vehicle repair areas. Energy use associated with outside areas such as vehicle parking and gas filling areas should be included with the total energy use for the building s , but the square footage associated with these outdoor areas should not be included in the Gross Floor Area.
Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including sales floors, offices, staff break rooms, and storage areas. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including exhibit halls, preparation and staging areas, meeting rooms, concession stands, offices, bathrooms, break rooms, security areas, elevator shafts, and stairwells.
Conference facilities located within a Hotel should be included along with your Hotel property use details, rather than added as a separate Convention Center property use. No — There is not a commercial cooking area.
If your facility contains only employee break room kitchens, this field should be marked No. Cooling Equipment Redundancy is not required, nor is it factored into any metrics If there are multiple systems operating at different levels of redundancy, chose the option that applies to the majority of the data center cooling load.
Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including temporary holding cells, chambers, kitchens used by staff, lobbies, atriums, conference rooms and auditoriums, fitness areas for staff, storage areas, stairways, and elevator shafts.
The permissions that you can select are: None suppresses access to that specific tab Meters or Goals or that specific information Certification. Often Data Centers are free standing, mission critical computing centers. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s including raised floor computing space, server rack aisles, storage silos, control console areas, battery rooms, mechanical rooms for cooling equipment, administrative office areas, elevator shafts, stairways, break rooms and restrooms.
Yes - Estimates for energy consumption will be applied for this data center. IT Energy is a measure of energy i. IT Energy may be measured at any of 4 locations: If energy used by non-IT equipment is not measured, then you can supply a reading from the input to the PDU that supports the IT equipment. See the definition of Data Center IT Energy for other meter locations which are permitted under certain conditions when UPS readings are not available.
Yes - One or more default value was used in the Property Use Details. No — There are no default values for any Property Use Details. Default values are available for property types that can get a score in either the US or Canada and for Property Use Details that are used in the calculation of the score. Although the US and Canada rely on different national surveys, the same default values based on the US population are applied for all properties, regardless of country.
You can view this metric for all properties in a report, or for each individual Property Use Type on the Details tab. Yes — There is a Dining Hall, which refers to special space and equipment in a residential facility that is dedicated to food preparation and service for the residents.
No — The property does not contain a Dining Hall. Disposed waste refers to your waste that was not composted, recycled, or donated.
This waste generally goes to a landfill or an incinerator. See Waste Disposal Method. The Disposed Waste Destination is one of 4 options where your disposed waste trash ultimately goes: Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s including space designed to store non-perishable goods and merchandise, offices, lobbies, stairways, rest rooms, equipment storage areas, and elevator shafts.
For example, a company may replace their computers every few years and donate the old computers to a school. Gross Floor Area should include all areas within the physical structures at the plant including treatment areas, administrative offices, stairways, hallways and mechanical rooms. The Gross Floor Area should not include any exterior portions of the facility, such as retention or settling ponds.
Although not typically used for normalization at plants, Gross Floor Area is a required system input for all properties. Correct Mistakes — If you find a mistake or want to finalize an estimated number, this selection takes you to the History Log. Update With New Information — If a change has occurred on your property for example, your weekly operating hours changed from 40 hours per week to 60 hours per week you will want to use the Update Use Details page, where you can enter the effective date for this change.
Demand tracking is optional and does not affect any of your energy metrics. Utilities measure the highest rate of using electricity each billing cycle in order to adequately size the generation, transmission and distribution capacity required to provide energy to each customer. Electric Demand kW is the highest measured rate of your electricity use for each bill. There are four Demand metrics that you can add to Custom Reports: Annual Maximum Demand kW is the highest demand value across all your electric meters and all meter entries covered in the month performance period.
Regional Power Grid — This is the geographic area across which the electric power grid is fully interconnected. Power Generation Plant Optional, and applicable in US only —users have the option to specify an individual power plant to which the property is directly connected.
For full documentation on how emissions rates are determined, view our Calculation Methodology Document. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including retail stores, offices, food courts, restaurants, storage areas, staff break rooms, atriums, walkways, stairwells, and mechanical rooms.
Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including power generation areas boilers, turbines etc , administrative space, cooling towers, kitchens used by staff, lobbies, meeting rooms, cafeterias, stairways, elevator shafts, and storage areas which may include fossil fuel storage tanks or bins. This should not include any exterior spaces associated with the power stations. Submitted - Your application has been submitted, but it is not yet under review.
Under Review - Your application is under review. Escalated to Expert - Your application has been escalated to a subject matter expert. Questions for Applicant - We emailed you questions about your application. Revised Application Required - You are required to submit a revised application. Pending Approval - Your application has no outstanding technical questions, however your approval will not go through until January 1 because you have already earned certification in the current year.
Therefore, if your application is approved in January , your next application cannot be approved until January Approved - Your application has been approved, but your award decal has not yet been shipped to your property. Award Sent - Your award decal has been sent. Expired - Your application has expired because you did not respond to our questions. Not Approved - Your application was not approved. The scale is set so that 1 represents the worst performing buildings and represents the best performing buildings.
The scale is based on the country in which your property is located. Metric Units — This will apply standard metric units to all values. In Reporting, under Data Accuracy, you can choose three general metrics for "Estimated Values" one for energy, water, and waste , and an "Estimated Data Flag" for each specific meter type.
Yes - A meter s includes estimated usage. No - There are no estimated meter entries. There are many versions of EUI in the metrics: Exchange Data allows you to select an organization which is registered to use web services to exchange data with your Portfolio Manager account. More information about exchanging data via web services. Yes — The store has an exterior entrance through which customers enter from the outside.
No — There is no exterior entrance available to the public. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including kitchens, sales areas, dining areas, offices, staff break rooms, and storage areas. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s including offices, trading floors, conference rooms and auditoriums, vaults, kitchens used by staff, lobbies, atriums, fitness areas for staff, storage areas, stairways, and elevator shafts.
Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including office areas, vehicle storage areas, residential areas if applicable , storage areas, break rooms, kitchens, elevator shafts, and stairwells. Yes — The plant uses Trickle Filtration as a method of biological treatment. No — The plant does not utilize Trickle Filtration. Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including sales areas, storage areas, offices, kitchens, and staff break rooms.
Gross Floor Area should include all space within the building s , including kitchens, sales areas, dining areas, staff break rooms, and storage areas. Full Access is the ability to view and edit your property. Yes - There is a full year 12 complete calendar months of energy data associated with the selected time period. No - There less than a full year fewer than 12 calendar months of energy data associated with the selected time period.
Yes - There is a full year 12 complete calendar months of water data associated with the selected time period. No - There less than a full year fewer than 12 calendar months of water data associated with the selected time period.
Direct Emissions — Direct Emissions are emissions associated with onsite fuel combustion e. Indirect Emissions — Indirect Emissions are emissions associated with purchases of electricity, district steam, district hot water, or district chilled water. Biomass Emissions — Biomass Emissions are emissions associated with biogenic fuels such as wood or biogas captured methane.
Yes — The property receives some type of local, state, or federal affordable housing subsidy for some or all units. No — The property does not receive any subsidies.
Choose one of two options to meet additional daylighting and lighting controls performance expectations minimum daylight factor or occupant controlled lighting. Last Modified By - Electricity Meters is the person who last updated your property's electricity meters. Last Modified By - Gas Meters is the person who last updated your property's natural gas meters. Last Modified By - Non-Electric Non-Gas Energy Meters is the person who last updated your property's energy meters with the exception of electric and gas meters which are covered in separate metrics.
Last Modified By - Property is the person who last updated your property's information. Last Modified By - Waste Meters is the person who last updated your property's waste meters. Last Modified By - Water Meters is the person who last updated your property's water meters. Last Modified Date - Electricity Meters is the date that your property's electricity meters were last updated.
Last Modified Date - Gas Meters is the date that your property's natural gas meters were last updated. Last Modified Date - Non-Electric Non-Gas Energy Meters is the date that your property's energy meters with the exception of electric and gas meters which are covered in separate metrics - were last updated. Last Modified Date - Property is the date that your property was last updated.
Last Modified Date - Waste Meters is the date that your property's waste meters were last updated. Last Modified Date - Water Meters is the date that your property's water meters were last updated. The Number of Bedrooms should reflect the total number of bedrooms located in each individual apartment unit at the property.
Efficiency and studio apartments count as one 1 bedroom. A junior one bedroom a unit with a separate space for sleeping and usually separated by a half wall or temporary wall count as one 1 bedroom. Some preparation is done to enhance the taste or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; others may be involved in cultural identity.
A meal is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place. The preparation of animal-based food usually involves slaughter , evisceration , hanging, portioning, and rendering.
In developed countries, this is usually done outside the home in slaughterhouses , which are used to process animals en masse for meat production. Many countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example, the United States has established the Humane Slaughter Act of , which requires that an animal be stunned before killing.
Strict interpretations of kashrut require the animal to be fully aware when its carotid artery is cut. On the local level, a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts, and pre-wrap them for commercial sale or wrap them to order in butcher paper.
In addition, fish and seafood may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fish monger. However, fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for preservation of quality. The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food.
Cooking technique, known as culinary art , generally requires the selection, measurement, and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result.
Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools , and the skill of the individual cook. Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically changes the molecules, thus changing its flavor, texture , appearance, and nutritional properties.
There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs at Homo erectus campsites dating from , years ago. Different cuisines will use different types of ovens. For example, Indian culture uses a tandoor oven, which is a cylindrical clay oven which operates at a single high temperature.
Classic Italian cuisine includes the use of a brick oven containing burning wood. Ovens may be wood-fired, coal-fired, gas , electric, or oil-fired. Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. Cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan , sauce pot, frying pan , or pressure cooker.
These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as steaming , simmering , boiling , and poaching for moist methods, while the dry methods include sautéing , pan frying , and deep-frying.
In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking. A grill operates with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal grid and sometimes a cover. An open pit barbecue in the American south is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by wood, liquid propane, or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for smoking. In Argentina , an asado Spanish for "grilled" is prepared on a grill held over an open pit or fire made upon the ground, on which a whole animal or smaller cuts are grilled.
Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in a raw state. Salads consisting of raw vegetables or fruits are common in many cuisines.
Sashimi in Japanese cuisine consists of raw sliced fish or other meat, and sushi often incorporates raw fish or seafood. Steak tartare and salmon tartare are dishes made from diced or ground raw beef or salmon, mixed with various ingredients and served with baguettes , brioche , or frites. Restaurants employ trained chefs who prepare food, and trained waitstaff to serve the customers.
The term restaurant is credited to the French from the 19th century, as it relates to the restorative nature of the bouillons that were once served in them.
However, the concept pre-dates the naming of these establishments, as evidence suggests commercial food preparation may have existed during the age of the city of Pompeii , and urban sales of prepared foods may have existed in China during the Song dynasty.
The coffee shops or cafés of 17th century Europe may also be considered an early version of the restaurant. Expenditures by type of out-of-home dining were as follows: Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase.
This can be as simple as a butcher preparing meat, or as complex as a modern international food industry. Early food processing techniques were limited by available food preservation, packaging, and transportation.
This mainly involved salting , curing , curdling, drying , pickling , fermenting , and smoking. It brought the advantages of pre-prepared time-saving food to the bulk of ordinary people who did not employ domestic servants.
At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands. There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated processing and packaging methods, and logistics and distribution advances can enhance product quality, improve food safety , and reduce costs. Britain 's need for food was especially well illustrated in World War II.
Despite the implementation of food rationing , Britain remained dependent on food imports and the result was a long term engagement in the Battle of the Atlantic. Food is traded and marketed on a global basis. The variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season.
In , over countries became signatories to the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in a dramatic increase in trade liberalization. This included an agreement to reduce subsidies paid to farmers, underpinned by the WTO enforcement of agricultural subsidy , tariffs , import quotas , and settlement of trade disputes that cannot be bilaterally resolved. Trade liberalization has greatly affected world food trade. Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer.
The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies. For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one can of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and manufacture cans. In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day into the local village marketplace.
Here food was sold to grocers for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers. Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them. In the 20th century, supermarkets were born. Supermarkets brought with them a self service approach to shopping using shopping carts , and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs.
In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized, out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world. Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large companies control a large proportion of supermarkets.
The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. In December , 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls.
In the s and s, farm subsidies and support programs allowed major grain exporting countries to hold large surpluses, which could be tapped during food shortages to keep prices down. However, new trade policies had made agricultural production much more responsive to market demands, putting global food reserves at their lowest since Rising food prices in those years have been linked with social unrest around the world, including rioting in Bangladesh and Mexico ,  and the Arab Spring.
This was as a result of shifts in trade policy and restocking by major producers. More fundamental drivers of increased prices are the higher costs of fertiliser, diesel and labour. Parts of Asia see rural wages rise with potential large benefits for the 1. However, this negatively impacts more vulnerable groups who don't share in the economic boom, especially in Asian and African coastal cities.
The researchers said the threat means social-protection policies are needed to guard against price shocks. The research proposed that in the longer run, the rises present opportunities to export for Western African farmers with high potential for rice production to replace imports with domestic production.
This has caused price fluctuations which are not strongly related to the actual supply of food, according to the United Nations. The result of this financialisation of the commodities market is that the prices of the products respond increasingly to a purely speculative logic. This explains why in very short periods of time we see prices spiking or bubbles exploding, because prices are less and less determined by the real match between supply and demand.
Some experts have said that speculation has merely aggravated other factors, such as climate change , competition with bio-fuels and overall rising demand. Ghosh points to world wheat prices, which doubled in the period from June to December , despite there being no fall in global supply.
Food deprivation leads to malnutrition and ultimately starvation. This is often connected with famine , which involves the absence of food in entire communities. This can have a devastating and widespread effect on human health and mortality. Rationing is sometimes used to distribute food in times of shortage, most notably during times of war. Starvation is a significant international problem.
Approximately million people are undernourished, and over 16, children die per day from hunger-related causes. Food aid can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no longer required.
Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence can develop. Sometimes, food aid provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of donor countries. Foodborne illness , commonly called "food poisoning", is caused by bacteria , toxins , viruses , parasites , and prions.
Roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version. Less commonly, acute adverse reactions can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and disinfectants. Food can also be adulterated by a very wide range of articles known as "foreign bodies" during farming, manufacture, cooking, packaging, distribution, or sale.
These foreign bodies can include pests or their droppings, hairs, cigarette butts, wood chips, and all manner of other contaminants. It is possible for certain types of food to become contaminated if stored or presented in an unsafe container, such as a ceramic pot with lead-based glaze. Food poisoning has been recognized as a disease since as early as Hippocrates. Discovery of techniques for killing bacteria using heat, and other microbiological studies by scientists such as Louis Pasteur , contributed to the modern sanitation standards that are ubiquitous in developed nations today.
This was further underpinned by the work of Justus von Liebig , which led to the development of modern food storage and food preservation methods. Recommended measures for ensuring food safety include maintaining a clean preparation area with foods of different types kept separate, ensuring an adequate cooking temperature, and refrigerating foods promptly after cooking.
Foods that spoil easily, such as meats , dairy , and seafood , must be prepared a certain way to avoid contaminating the people for whom they are prepared. As such, the rule of thumb is that cold foods such as dairy products should be kept cold and hot foods such as soup should be kept hot until storage.
Cold meats, such as chicken, that are to be cooked should not be placed at room temperature for thawing, at the risk of dangerous bacterial growth, such as Salmonella or E. Some people have allergies or sensitivities to foods which are not problematic to most people. This occurs when a person's immune system mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it.
In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are gluten , corn , shellfish mollusks , peanuts , and soy. The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the allergen.
Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency , such as anaphylactic shock , hypotension low blood pressure , and loss of consciousness.
An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although latex products can induce similar reactions. Food contaminated with fungal growth may contain mycotoxins such as aflatoxins which may be found in contaminated corn and peanuts.
Other carcinogens identified in food include heterocyclic amines generated in meat when cooked at high temperature, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in charred meat and smoked fish, and nitrosamines generated from nitrites used as food preservatives in cured meat such as bacon.
The term and its associated practices are usually used positively to describe people of refined taste and passion. Gourmet food tends to be served in smaller, more expensive, portions. There also tends to be cross-cultural interactions when it comes to Gourmet, introducing new ingredient, materials, and practices.
The word gourmet is from the French term for a wine broker or taste-vin employed by a wine dealer. The pleasure is also visual: Gourmet was rendered respectable by Monsieur Grimod de la Reynière , whose Almanach des Gourmands , essentially the first restaurant guide , appeared in Paris from to Previously, even the liberal Encyclopédie offered a moralising tone in its entry Gourmandise , defined as "refined and uncontrolled love of good food", employing reproving illustrations that contrasted the frugal ancient Spartans and Romans of the Republic with the decadent luxury of Sybaris.
The Jesuits ' Dictionnaire de Trévoux took the Encyclopédistes to task, reminding its readers that gourmandise was one of the Seven Deadly Sins. The term gourmet can refer to a person with refined or discriminating taste who is knowledgeable in the craft and art of food and food preparation. Gourmand carries additional connotations of one who enjoys food in great quantities . An epicure is similar to a gourmet, but the word may sometimes carry overtones of excessive refinement.
A gourmet chef is a chef of particularly high caliber of cooking talent and skill. What is considered gourmet is different depending on the time and geographic region. What is gourmet historically depended upon what ingredients the people of that region had access to and how easily they acquire them. For instance, seafood could be considered a luxury in an area that lacks fish, whereas it would not be seen as such in an area near the ocean or a great river.
Gourmet tended, and still does in many parts of the world, to be revered by a person with access to wealth because gourmet food has always been expensive.
The expense was the result of a scarcity of ingredients for a particular food in the region at the time . This fact meant they needed to be brought in from far away, which brought a variety of risks to the merchants. Merchants would have to deal with weather conditions, thieves, and broken equipment, intermediaries, and other such factors that could delay or interrupt the shipment of the good at the cost of their lives and fortune .
Thus they asked for higher prices. The typical meal would be what they could most easily get their hands on. In Britain, for instance, that was gruels, vegetables, small amounts of wild game, and grains . For instance, Jewish and Islamic cultures have rules for not only what they can eat, but how to prepare the food and what it can be paired with  . To eat specific food items they must be Kosher for Jews and Halal for Muslims  .